The American College of Surgeons (ACS) and the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) have collaborated on the development of new comprehensive guidelines for the preoperative care of the nation’s elderly patients. The joint guidelines—published in the October issue of the Journal of the American College of Surgeons—apply to every patient who is age 65 and older as defined by Medicare regulations. The guidelines are the culmination of two years of research and analysis by a multidisciplinary expert panel representing the ACS and the AGS as well as a range of medical specialties.
“The major objective of these guidelines is to help surgeons and the entire perioperative care team improve the quality of surgical care for elderly patients,” said Clifford Y. Ko, MD, FACS, Director of the ACS National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP®) and the ACS Division of Research and Optimal Patient Care, professor of surgery at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), and director of UCLA’s Center for Surgical Outcomes and Quality.
One of the driving forces behind the guidelines is America’s expanding geriatric population, Dr. Ko explained. The U.S. Census Bureau projects the percentage of men and women ages 65 and older will more than double between 2010 and 2050 and will increase by 20 percent of the total population by 2030.* In 2006, elderly patients underwent 35 percent of inpatient surgical procedures and 32 percent of outpatient procedures, according to study authors.
“For elderly patients undergoing surgical procedures, we want to ensure we are optimizing each patient’s medical condition,” Dr. Ko said. “This population is growing in numbers and we want to emphasize the depth and breadth of care required for them. These evidence-based guidelines will enhance surgical practice by setting higher standards and performance measures for surgeons and the entire perioperative care team,” he said. This is the first time the ACS has worked with the AGS to develop guidelines for geriatric patients, according to Dr. Ko.
These guidelines have been developed in response to a performance measure that the ACS has developed with the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), according to Dr. Ko. ACS NSQIP has worked with CMS to develop “the elderly surgery measure,” a hospital-based measure that assesses the outcome of elderly patients undergoing surgical procedures and evaluates quality of care in Medicare patients. The ACS and CMS launched a pilot program in October that gives hospitals the opportunity to publicly and voluntarily report the outcome results.
The guidelines recommend and specify 13 key issues in preoperative care for the elderly (see sidebar).
“There is no single magic bullet for rendering this level of surgical care,” Dr. Ko said. “Each of the 13 issues covered by the guidelines is very important, comprehensive, and difficult to prioritize. For example, surgeons and perioperative team members may do perfectly well when analyzing a patient’s cognitive functioning, but not so well on the polypharmacy issue. So then suddenly, polypharmacy becomes the number-one issue for the surgical team to address during the preoperative care phase,” he explained.
Furthermore, the expert panel identified complex problems specific to the elderly, including use of multiple medications, functional status, frailty, risk of malnutrition, cognitive impairment, and comorbidities. “When surgeons evaluate elderly patients before they undergo operations, they want to know how many and what specific medications their patients are taking. This step will enable them to identify potential medication issues before operations and before the surgeons start adding pain medication to the patient’s medication list,” Dr. Ko explained.
As the guidelines state, “[C]onsider minimizing the patient’s risk for adverse drug reactions by identifying what should be discontinued before surgery or should be avoided and dose reducing or substituting potentially inappropriate medications.”
Additionally, the number and severity of underlying medical problems call for special strategies by the entire surgical team, according to Dr. Ko.
“Patients who are 90 years old tend to have more comorbidities than those who are 65 years,” he said. “There may be something wrong with the heart, the lungs, the kidneys, the liver. Surgeons have to plan and deal with these comorbidities simultaneously while the patient is undergoing a surgical procedure.”
The guidelines state that evaluating patients for developing heart disease and heart attack is critical in order to identify patients at higher risk. All patients should be evaluated for perioperative cardiac risk.
“Caring for the elderly generally requires a team approach,” said Dr. Ko. “The surgeon knows how to perform surgery, and the cardiologist knows how to take care of the heart. It’s best for everyone to work together to take care of the patient. We want everyone on the same page of providing good quality care.”
*Source: U.S. Census Bureau Statistical Brief. Sixty-five Plus in the United States. Available at http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/statbriefs/agebrief.html. Accessed September 26, 2012.